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Cancer Metastasis, a Clinical Dilemma for Therapeutics

[ Vol. 11 , Issue. 2 ]


Da-Yong Lu*, Ting-Ren Lu, Bin Xu, Rong-Xin Qi, Nagendra S. Yarla, Xiao-Die Zhou and Jian Ding   Pages 163 - 169 ( 7 )


Background: More than 90% of cancer deaths are caused by cancer metastasis. Cancer metastatic therapy is a top priority topic.

Objective: New therapeutics against cancer metastasis is to be discovered.

Methods: In the past pathogenesis study, a therapeutic dilemma has been discovered from literatures of epithelial-mesenchymal cell interchange in late-staged cancer patients—opposite tumor pathogenesis routes between primary and metastatic tumors.

Results: Possible options for overcoming this dilemma are enlisted from different therapeutic attempts (such as novel drug target (cancer biomarkers) discovery, antimetastatic drug developments, biotherapies, drug combinations, cancer therapeutics according to metastatic cascades, different types of personalized medicine paradigms and so on).

Conclusions: These therapeutic options might change the landscape of cancer treatments and managements in clinics forever.


Neoplasm metastases, cancer chemotherapy, personalized cancer therapy, drug sensitivity testing, drug combination, pharmacogenetics, personalized medicine.


Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, P.R. China.

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