Geeta Aggarwal, Sonia Verma, Madhu Gupta and Manju Nagpal* Pages 135 - 152 ( 18 )
Background: Periodontal disease is an immuno-inflammatory condition of tissues that surround and hold the teeth. It is the disease which succeeds in all races, groups and both genders. Almost 10 to15% of the global population gets suffered from severe periodontitis as per WHO reports. Periodontal disease may likely cause other systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and pre-term low birth weight infants. Mechanical removal of plaques and calculus deposits from supra and subgingival environment is the backbone of periodontal treatment till date whereas complete elimination of these deleterious agents is quite unrealistic as the pocket depth increases.
Recent Approaches: Recently controlled local drug delivery application is more encouraging in comparison to systemic approach as it mainly targets to enhance the therapeutic efficacy by maintaining site-specificity, avoiding first pass metabolism, reduction in gastrointestinal (GI) side effects and decreasing the dose. Several drugs such as antiseptics and antibiotics alongwith various carriers are being formulated as local drug delivery systems for effective management of the disease. Various local delivery systems reported are fibers, films, strips, compacts, injectables, microparticles, vesicular carriers, gels and nanoparticles. These local carriers provide effective prolonged treatment at the site of infection at reduced doses. This review enlightens detailed pathophysiology and various phases of periodontitis, challenges in treatment of disease and various antimicrobial agents (along with their marketed formulations) used. The main emphasis of the review is to cover all carrier systems developed so far for local delivery application in the effective management of periodontitis, as a patient compliant drug therapy.
Antimicrobial, controlled, gels, fibers, local drug delivery, periodontitis.
Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3 MB Road, New Delhi-110017, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3 MB Road, New Delhi-110017, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, Pushp Vihar, Sector-3 MB Road, New Delhi-110017, Chitkara College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Chandigarh-Patiala National Highway, Rajpura, Patiala-140401