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Neuro-AIDS: Current Status and Challenges to Antiretroviral Drug Therapy (ART) for Its Treatment

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Smita P. Kakad* and Sanjay J. Kshirsagar   Pages 469 - 481 ( 13 )

Abstract:


Introduction: The infiltration of HIV into the brain alters the functions of the nervous system known as Neuro-AIDS. It leads to neuronal defects clinically manifested by motor and cognitive dysfunctions.

Materials and Methods: Current antiretroviral therapy can prevent viral replication but cannot cure the disease completely. HAART-Highly active antiretroviral therapy is used for the treatment of HIV infection. Challenges in neuro-AIDS therapy are as shown in the graphical abstract. One of the challenges is latent viral reservoirs like the brain; which act as a sanctuary site for viruses. Nearly ~50% of HIV patients show neuropathological signs. Nervous system related disorders, including AIDS dementia, sensory neuropathy, and myelopathy have a 25% of prevalence in patients having access to a highly active combination of antiretroviral therapy.

Results and Conclusions: Brain is one of the viral sanctuary sites for HIV. The current need of neuro-AIDS therapy is to target the brain as a viral reservoir. Drugs should cross or bypass the blood-brain barrier to reach the brain with effective concentrations. Current research on novel drug delivery approaches may prove helpful in treating neuro-AIDS and related disorders effectively.

Keywords:

HIV, Neuro-AIDS, brain, current antiretroviral therapy, dementia, neuro-AIDS challenges.

Affiliation:

Department of Pharmaceutics, MET’s Institute of Pharmacy, Adgaon, Nashik, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra, Pune 422003, Department of Pharmaceutics, MET’s Institute of Pharmacy, Adgaon, Nashik, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Maharashtra, Pune 422003

Graphical Abstract:



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