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COVID-19: Pathogenesis and Pharmacological Basis for Use of Passive Antibody Therapy

[ Vol. 15 , Issue. 5 ]

Author(s):

Smriti Ojha*, Hina Chadha and Seema Mahor   Pages 448 - 456 ( 9 )

Abstract:


Background: Coronaviruses (CoVs), having enveloped RNA of positive strand, are mainly responsible for enzootic infections in mammals. The mortality of CoVs has been proved as they can cross the species barrier very easily and infect humans. Most recently, the outbreak of coronavirus induced COVID-19 emerged in the city of Wuhan, Hubei province of China and became the third highly pathogenic coronavirus infecting nearly 230 countries.

Objective: To review the literature available about pathogenic Coronavirures with emphasis on pathogenesis of COVID-19, and passive antibody therapy prospective.

Methods: This study reviewed relevant published literature to provide (1) structural similarities between coronaviruses and therapeutic methodologies used on SARS-CoV, MERS treatment which might help scientists in understanding novel COVID-19 infection, (2) understanding COVID-19 pathogenesis that may help in identification of appropriate therapeutic targets to develop specific and effective anti-viral drugs as well as immunizing agents against this novel emerging pathogen and (3) to discuss existing knowledge on the passive immune therapy against similar coronaviruses SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with emphasis on COVID-19 pandemic treatment.

Conclusion: COVID 19 coronavirus has shown resemblance to viral infections like SARS-CoV, MERS infection. Historically, it has been proved that the prevention of disease, when exposed to a biological system, is mainly a function of the immune response of that infected individual. To fight against these infections, passive antibody therapy is the only available countermeasure that could provide immediate immunity against infection. Passive antibody results in protection irrespective of the immune status of the host. This therapy can be advantageous in countering the biological attack, post exposure preventions, low toxicity and peculiar activity.

Keywords:

Coronavirus, COVID 19, emerging threat, monoclonal antibody, immunotherapy, infectious diseases.

Affiliation:

Faculty of Pharmacy, Sardar Patel College of Pharmacy, Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vishveshwarya Group of Institutions, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vishveshwarya Group of Institutions, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh

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