Nyaz Shelko, Mohammed F. Hamad, Mathias Montenarh and Mohamam E. Hammadeh Pages 58 - 65 ( 8 )
This study aimed to examine the effects of smoking cigarettes on the sperm feature of healthy, normospermia and subnormospermia men. 420 samples of semen were derived from healthy patients and categorized into two groups; normospermia (G. I, n=100; A: smokers=50, B: non-smokers=50) and subnormospermia (G.II; n=320; A: smokers=160, B: non-smokers=160). Semen analysis was performed for all samples. Sperm vitality was assessed with Eosin test and Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS-Test) and was utilized to test the membrane integrity of the sperm. It was determined that heavy smoking (greater than 20 cigarettes per day) was significantly correlated with a decrease in sperm concentration (mill/ml), percentage of vitality (%), motility (%) and membrane integrity in all examined semen samples as well as sample from normo- and subnormosperrmia. These results propose that heavy smoking causes to a significant deterioration in semen quality (sperm concentration, vitality, motility and membrane integrity not only by subnormospermia but also by normospermia men), thus smoking may negatively affect the fertilization efficiency. Sperm cell membrane integrity test (HOS-test) could be used as standard screening test and a biomarker for the sperm quality in patients.
Smoke, sperm, standard parameters, membrane integrity.
, , , Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Saarland, Homburg/Saar, Germany.